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Biology Courses


ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I BIO 210 BIO (4.00 credits)
This course is the study of structure and function of the cells, tissues, skin, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems of the human body. The class has three lectures and one two-hour lab per week. The blended online section completes the same lecture material through online coursework, and meets weekly for one, three-hour session consisting of the lab and a one-hour discussion. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: BIO 155 or BIO 151-BIO 152 or BIO 181-BIO 182.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II BIO 211 BIO (4.00 credits)
This course is the study of structure and function of the endocrine, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, lymphatic, urinary, and reproductive systems of the human body. The class has three lectures and one two-hour lab per week. The blended online section completes the same lecture material through online coursework, and meets weekly for one, three-hour session consisting of the lab and a one-hour discussion. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: Successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 210; or consent of instructor.
ANIMAL BEHAVIOR BIO 430 S BIO (4.00 credits)
The study of animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective.  Lecture explores theory and examples, labs develop an experimental approach to understanding how and why animals (including humans!) do what they do.  Topics include communication, mating behavior, parental care, foraging, territoriality, and social behavior. Cross-listed: None. Offered: S, odd years Prerequisite: BIO 151, BIO 181, BIO 152, or BIO 182, or consent of the instructor.
ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY BIO 425 BIO (3.00 credits)
How do different kinds of animals survive and thrive within their home environments? Some species have extraordinary adaptations that allow them to function in difficult circumstances; others are currently challenged by environmental change.  Animal Phsyiology is intended for a broad spectrum of life-science majors who are interested in how animals work and how they interact with the world outside of their bodies.  Cross-listed: None. Offered: S, odd years Prerequisite: successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 151-BIO 152, BIO 181-BIO 182, or equivalent; successful completion of or concurrent enrollment in BIO 353 is recommended.
BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY BIO 445 V BIO (4.00 credits)
This course examines the relationship between the functions of the central nervous system and behavior. Topics include basic structure and function of brain cells, and the physiological mechanisms of sensory perception, motor coordination, sleep, memory, language, aggression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and depression. Cross-listed: PSY 445. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: BIO 151 or BIO 155 or BIO 181, Junior or Senior status
BIOLOGY ASSESSMENT BIO 499 BIO (0.00 credits)
Students registered for the course must complete the Educational Testing Exam during finals week, which is the only time this class meets during the semester. This course will assess biology knowledge for students who are majoring in Broad Field Natural Science (Biology concentration), Cytotechnology, and Broad Field Science Teaching (Life and Environmental Studies including Biology and Environmental Science concentration). Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: None.
BIOLOGY EXCURSIONS BIO 292 BIO (1.00 - 3.00 credits)
Science learning experiences occur in the classroom, in the laboratory, and in the field. In this experience-based course, students discover and experience facts, concepts, and laws of science for themselves, much as scientists do in their professional lives. Experiences that extend from the classroom into the field allow students to explore, observe, and investigate things in the natural world that cannot be effectively brought into the classroom learning environment. Travel is an essential part of the class and locations will be chosen for their scientific and/or environmental significance. Classroom sessions will precede the travel portion of the course. Specific Prerequisites of the course will vary with semester and travel destinations. Cross-listed: NATS 292 and GEOS 292 (S) Offered: No Information Provided. Prerequisite: Specific Prerequisites of the course will vary based on the requirements of the specific travel experience.
BIOLOGY SEMINAR BIO 480 3K BIO (2.00 credits)
Edgewood's Biology major emphasizes the contributions of broadly-educated biologists to a just and compassionate world. As such, the scientific community engages a variety of different people in a collaborative effort to advance discovery and its ethical application. Biology Seminar is a forum in which our advanced students use a scientific talk on undergraduate research to display their expertise in biology, demonstrate their understanding of the scientific process and its application, and articulate a personal philosophy regarding their role in the scientific community. The course models the value of scientific communication. All members of the course also take an active role in the discourse that is a critical part of the scientific community through evaluation and discussion of the work of peers. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: COR 2, BIO 251, O tag, Junior status, or consent of the instructor.
BIOTECH, BIOETHICS AND YOU BIO 101 1V BIO (3.00 credits)
This course explores the science behind "new" biological advances, their potential, and their limitations. It challenges students to explore and to critically reflect upon their personal values, beliefs, spiritualties and worldviews in the context of decision making. It utilizes an inquiry-based approach to investigate modern biological advances, relevant human issues, and the importance of informed analysis in decision making. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F Prerequisite: This course is for first semester freshmen or freshmen transfer students.
BIOTECHNOLOGY BIO 201 V BIO (2.00 credits)
This course will address the conceptual basis of molecular biology, tools and techniques of modern biotechnology, the application of biotechnology to medicine, agriculture and the environment, and the ethical, legal and social issues associated with these applications. Biological principles that play an important role in biotechnology will be covered, including basics of molecular biology and genetic manipulation, gene expression, structure/function relationships of biomolecules, and relationships between molecular and organismal biology. Health care and agribusiness applications will be reviewed and relevant case studies will be examined. The philosophy of science and how the scientific community interacts and communicates with industry and the general public will a recurring theme through the semester. Cross-listed: None. Offered: No Information Provided. Prerequisite: None.
CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 402 BIO (4.00 credits)
Cell and Molecular Biology studies how life works at the molecular level. The course utilizes a comparative approach to the study of cell biology. Topics include molecular mechanisms of cellular regulation, the life cycle of a cell, and the dynamic role of protein structures in cellular function. Lab explores these topics in model organisms including bacteria, yeast and algae. The history of cell biology research is explored through the discussion of landmark discoveries and their influence on modern molecular biology. Students are expected to become proficient with light microscopy, and complement cellular observation with molecular techniques such as PCR and gel electrophoresis. An introduction to bioinformatics explores the relationship between protein structure and function. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F Prerequisite: successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 151 and BIO 152 or BIO 181 and BIO 182; completion of one year of college chemistry.
DENDROLOGY: TREES & SHRUBS OF WISC BIO 275 E BIO (2.00 credits)
A field course in the identification of trees, shrubs, and woody vines native to Wisconsin and the Great Lakes region as well as some of the common non-native horticultural and invasive species. Emphasis is on observation of plant characteristics permitting easy identification and discussion of the natural history, ecology, distribution, and human uses of each species. The course will also introduce students to basic forest ecology, management, and conservation principles, with emphasis on sustainable use of forests in the Great Lakes region and worldwide. Cross-listed: ENVS 275. Offered: F Prerequisite: None.
ECOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION BIO 333 E BIO (3.00 credits)
A global examination of the evolutionary and biological foundations underlying the multi-ethnic societies and diverse cultures observed in the modern world. Beginning with human evolution, this course will follow the sweep of human history through the origins of agriculture and the rise and fall of civilizations to the modern industrial condition. Focusing on biological and ecological processes and the human decisions that have led to the present, this course also explores the challenges faced by a growing and increasingly globalized human population as we move toward the future. Cross-listed: ENVS 333. Offered: F Prerequisite: None.
ECOLOGY BIO 450 E BIO (4.00 credits)
No species exists in isolation; life on Earth depends on interconnections between organisms and their environment. This course explores this interdependence by considering ecological principles as they pertain to individual organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere. Special attention is given to the role of humans in global ecological systems. Many topics are explored through field-based research in local natural communities in the laboratory. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F, even years Prerequisite: BIO 151 or BIO 181.
ECOLOGY, GENETICS, AND EVOLUTION BIO 151 ESU BIO (4.00 credits)
The first of a two-semester sequence exploring the basic biological concepts organized around the themes of the nature of science, ecology, classical genetics, and evolution.  Current world challenges, events, and issues associated with these biological topics will be discussed.  Lecture, discussion, and laboratory.   Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: Placement into ENG 110; placement into MATH 101, MATH 114A or higher is required; completion of or concurrent enrollment in MATH 101, MATH 114A, or equivalent is recommended; students cannot receive credit for both BIO 151 and BIO 155, or BIO 151 and BIO 181
EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY BIO 415 BIO (4.00 credits)
Exercise physiology is the science of how the body responds and adapts to exercise. Topics include a study of exercise physiology and metabolism theory, application to fitness, and the development of training regimes. Cross-listed: None. Offered: S, odd years Prerequisite: successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 211; completion of CHEM 111    or CHEM 121.
FIELD BIOLOGY BIO 204 BIO (2.00 credits)
Students will apply a variety of basic field methods and techniques to observe, quantify, and evaluate local biodiversity and ecosystems. The course will focus on the identification, life history, and ecology of flora and fauna in both terrestrial and aquatic systems. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/SS Prerequisite: None.
FIELD/LABORATORY RESEARCH BIO 489 BIO (1.00 - 3.00 credits)
An opportunity to engage in independent biology research under the direction of a department mentor. This course is intended for students who are continuing research from a prior BIO 252 experience, or those who are otherwise prepared for advanced independent research on a defined question.  For consent of the instructor, students should prepare a proposal that justifies the research question they would like to investigate as well as the hypothesis to be tested. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/W/S/SS Prerequisite: Successful completion of BIO 251; Consent of instructor.
FOOD: YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT BIO 102 1E BIO (3.00 credits)
You really are what you eat. In this course students will explore their relationship with food, from the way our bodies utilize what we eat and the health implications of food choices, to the far-reaching effects that food production has on the environment and socioeconomic systems around the world. Students will consider how food provisioning has changed throughout human history, how modern agriculture has changed the way we feed ourselves, and what this has meant for the well-being of humans and ecological systems. This course is meant to be a personal exploration of how food shapes each of our lives and our communities. Cross-listed: ENVS 102 Offered: F Prerequisite: This course is for first semester freshmen or freshmen transfer students.
FUNDAMENTALS OF GENETICS BIO 207 BIO (1.00 credits)
This is a problem-based course that focuses on the basic concepts of molecular, transmission, and population genetics. Probability and statistics that apply to genetics will be introduced. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: BIO 151/BIO 152
GENERAL BIOLOGY:CELLS & MOLECULES BIO 152 S BIO (4.00 credits)
This is the second semester of a two-semester sequence exploring the concepts of cell biology, molecular genetics, cell structure and function, and energy transformations.  Lecture, discussion and laboratory, all of which include current topics of interest to both biology majors and non-majors. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: Successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 151 or BIO 181; successful completion of an initial math cornerstone course (M tag) or placement into MATH 114B, MATH 231, or higher; students cannot receive credit for both BIO 152 and BIO 155 or for both BIO 152 and BIO 182
GENETIC MANIPULATION AND GENOMICS BIO 369B BIO (4.00 credits)
A laboratory and discussion based course delving into the world of molecular biology and the use of information technology as applied to the fields of basic science research and medicine. This course is designed to provide in-depth hands-on experience into the manipulation of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA and will provide an introduction to bioinformatics and its relevance to our ever-evolving world. Cross-listed: None. Offered: No Information Provided. Prerequisite: BIO 312, BIO 401, or BIO 402.
GENETICS BIO 401 BIO (3.00 credits)
Genetics is the study of heredity. The gene, the basic functional unit of heredity, is the focal point of this course. The course includes the fundamentals of gene structure and function, gene expression and control, classical genetics including both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and concludes with the genetic analysis of populations. The primary course goal is to enhance and to develop students understanding and application of core genetic principles through problem-solving. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 152 or BIO 182 or BIO 155; and completion of MATH 111 or MATH 114A; and completion of CHEM 110 or CHEM 120; or consent of instructor.
HNR: CELLS & MOLECULES BIO 182 S BIO (4.00 credits)
Honors Biology: Cells and Molecules is the second semester in the honors biology sequence. It explores the development, concepts, and application of our current understanding of molecular genetics and cell biology. Following completion of this course, students will be better equipped to understand how science works, how DNA enables inheritance and controls the activities of cells, and the relationship of organisms to energy.  The course includes: lectures, discussions, and laboratory experiences that are tightly linked as well as discussion of relevant current biological events and exploration of the history of biological thought. Cross-listed: None. Offered: S Prerequisite: successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 181 or BIO 151; successful completion of an initial math cornerstone course (M tag), or placement into MATH 114B, MATH 231, or higher; students cannot receive credit for both BIO 182 and BIO 152 or for both BIO 155 and BIO 182.
HNR: ECOLOGY, GENETICS, EVOLUTION BIO 181 ESU BIO (4.00 credits)
Honors Biology: Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution is the first semester of a two-semester biology sequence. It explores the development of our current understanding of foundational biological  principles.  The course begins with a study of ecology, followed by classical genetics, and closes with biological evolution.  Lecture, discussions, and laboratory exercises are tightly linked; each component of the course includes exploration of the history of biological thought, current biological problems and challenges, and laboratory experiences.  Students will built their knowledge and understanding of the discipline as well as 'habits of mind' foundational to the study of biology.  The course includes: lectures, discussions, field trips, and laboratory experiences. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F Prerequisite: placement into ENG 110; placement into MATH 101, MATH 114A or higher is required; completion of MATH 101, MATH 114A, or equivalent is recommended; students cannot receive credit for both BIO 181 and BIO 151 or for both BIO 155 and BIO 181.
HUMAN CELL BIOLOGY & GENETICS BIO 155 SU BIO (4.00 credits)
This is a one-semester exploration of the biological chemistry of the human cell organized around the unifying theme of the relationship of chemistry of biomolecules to the functional biology of a cell. Topics include the nature of science, biochemistry of water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, cellular structures, energy transformations in the cell, mitosis, meiosis, relationship between genotype and phenotype, transmission genetics and cancer. The material is covered in a combination of lecture, discussion and laboratory. A semester long project in the laboratory will be used to allow students to engage in scientific inquiry. This course is the second semester of the chemistry-biology sequence for Nursing majors. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: placement into ENG 110; completion of CHEM 110 or CHEM 120; placement into MATH 101, MATH 114A or higher is required; completion of or concurrent enrollment in MATH 101, MATH 114A, or equivalent is recommended; students cannot receive credit for both BIO 155 and any of the following: BIO 151, BIO 152, BIO 181, or BIO 182.
IMMUNOLOGY BIO 408 BIO (3.00 credits)
This course is an examination of general properties and principles of immune responses and serves as an introduction to molecular and cellular immunology. Topics covered include antigen and antibody structure and function, effector mechanisms, complement, major histocompatibility complexes, B- and T-cell receptors, antibody formation and immunity, and regulation of the immune response. Special topics include immunosuppression, immunodeficiency, transplantation, immunotherapy, and autoimmunity. Cross-listed: None. Offered: S, even years Prerequisite: successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 312 or consent of instructor.
INDEPENDENT STUDY - BIOLOGY BIO 379 BIO (1.00 - 4.00 credits)
The study of selected topics in biology under the direction of a faculty member in the department. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: consent of instructor.
INDEPENDENT STUDY - BIOLOGY BIO 479 BIO (1.00 - 4.00 credits)
The study of selected topics in biology under the direction of a faculty member in the department. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: consent of instructor.
INTRO HUMAN BIOMECHANICS BIO 220 V BIO (3.00 credits)
Biomechanics is a field which uses mechanical analyses to investigate biological problems. Biomechanics involves combining what we know about the anatomy and physiology of the body, and physics to investigate problems. It is an increasingly popular field of study, as it has applications in health, prosthetic design, ergonomics, athletics, and computer gaming. Students who complete this course will study the methods that are currently used in investigating human biomechanical problems. Topics covered will include: mechanical and structural properties of living tissues, loads applied to joints, common sports injuries and treatments, linear and angular kinematics, linear and angular kinetics, equilibrium and torque. Cross-listed: PHYS 220 Offered: No Information Provided. Prerequisite: C or better in MATH 114A or Placement level 3 or consent of instructor.
INTRO TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE BIO 250 EV BIO (3.00 credits)
Humans are intimately connected to the natural world. We not only depend on the environment for our existence and well-being, we are part of the environment and our actions can affect it profoundly. This course explores the connections between humans and our environment by exploring basic ecological principals and applying them to many of the major environmental issues currently faced by humanity. Cross-listed: ENVS 250 Offered: F/S Prerequisite: None.
INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY RESEARCH I BIO 251 IX BIO (3.00 credits)
An introduction to the scientific process that provides a framework for independent undergraduate research. Topics include reading and writing in the sciences, scientific ethics, experimental design, and biostatistics. As a general education course, the use of information technology and strategies for writing in the sciences are emphasized throughout the semester. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: BIO 151, BIO 152, BIO 155, BIO 181, or BIO 182 or concurrent enrollment; ENG 110 or W cornerstone.
INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY RESEARCH II BIO 252 BIO (1.00 - 2.00 credits)
A framework for collaborative undergraduate research. Students work with other students and a department mentor to advance scientific knowledge with original research or literature reviews. This course includes both individual work and group meetings to discuss scientific literature, experimental methods, data analysis, and presentation. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/W/S/SS Prerequisite: successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 251; Consent of instructor.
MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY BIO 406 BIO (4.00 credits)
Although the vast majority of microbes are non-pathogenic, many are capable of causing disease in other organisms including humans. This course emphasizes 1) host-microbe interactions between bacterial or viral pathogens and the human host; and 2) the molecular and genetic contributions of both host and microbe in establishment of infection. Topics that will be covered include microbial pathogenesis, microbial genetics, host susceptibility, and mechanisms of antimicrobial control, both immunological and chemical. The course is a combination of lecture, laboratory, and journal club discussions. Cross-listed: None. Offered: S, odd years Prerequisite: successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 312 or consent of instructor; BIO 401 recommended.
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY BIO 202 BIO (2.00 credits)
This course will cover basic medical terminology associated with body systems and disease in preparation for fields in the health sciences. Emphasis will be placed on root words, prefixes, and suffixes, as well as developing an ability to analyze unknown words. The course will be facilitated online and will focus on building a functional medical vocabulary, including correct written and spoken use of terminology. Cross-listed: None. Offered: S Prerequisite: none.
MICROBIOLOGY BIO 312 S BIO (4.00 credits)
This course focuses on the study of biological entities collectively known as 'Microbes', which include bacteria, viruses, protozoans, and fungi. Diversity and community interactions of microbes, both pathogens and non-pathogens, will be examined. The structure, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, pathogenicity, and control of microbes will be investigated. The course is a combination of lecture and laboratory sessions. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: successful completion (CD or higher) of CHEM 111    or CHEM 121 or BIO 155 or BIO 152 or BIO 182 or the consent of the instructor.
MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY BIO 203 BIO (1.00 credits)
Molecular Biology meets concurrently with BIO 201, twice a week. Additional class time and coursework addressing molecular concepts and techniques used in biotechnology, including genetic engineering, recombinant gene expression, genetic and other laboratory testing, and DNA nanotechnology is included in this course. Students must enroll in BIO 201 concurrently with BIO 203. Cross-listed: None. Offered: S Prerequisite: Successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 151/BIO 152 or BIO 181/BIO 182 or permission of the instructor.
NATURAL COMMUNITIES OF WISCONSIN BIO 206 EV BIO (3.00 credits)
An exploration of Wisconsin's wetlands, lakes and streams, prairies, savannas, and forests. In field trips and labs, we practice identifying local plants and animals, see some of the science behind our understanding of these biological communities, and support collaborative efforts to preserve our natural heritage. Cross-listed: ENVS 206. Offered: SS Prerequisite: None.
NUTRITION BIO 208 BIO (2.00 credits)
Nutrients and their relationship to normal body function. Course Objective: To become knowledgeable consumers of nutrition information by being aware of the rapidly changing nature of nutritional science, and how you can responsibly evaluate and apply such information to your life. To be achieved by planning a nutritious diet, using the acquired basic understanding of good nutrition; discussing the major nutrition issues regarding the U.S. diet; listing the necessary changes in his/her diet to provide optimal nutrition; describing how nutrients are used in the body. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: None.
Organismal Biology BIO 353 BIO (4.00 credits)
Organismal Biology is the study of how whole organisms work. The course begins with a survey of the diversity of life on Earth, with a focus on our shared evolutionary history and the relationships among all organisms. We then discuss common principles that underlie the structure and the function of individual organisms, as well as examples of the unique adaptations that differentiate the many forms of life. In lecture and lab, students will investigate the structure and function of plants and animals in particular, considering how they interact with and respond to their environments. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: BIO 151, BIO 181, or their equivalents; BIO 152, BIO 182, or their equivalents; completion of or concurrent enrollment in BIO 251.
ORGANISMAL BOTANY BIO 351 BIO (4.00 credits)
Explores advanced topics in botany, including surveys of the major plant groups, plant anatomy and physiology, plant ecology, and human uses of plants; also includes an introduction to fungi. The instructional activities designed for this course enable students to engage in the scientific process. Laboratory investigations, small group discussions, and writing assignments play a central role in instruction. Cross-listed: None. Offered: No Information Provided. Prerequisite: successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 151 and BIO 152 or BIO 181 and BIO 182.
ORGANISMAL ZOOLOGY BIO 352 BIO (4.00 credits)
This course is a broad survey of the study of animals. Organismal Zoology includes a survey of the major animal phyla, exploration of animal development, and investigation of selected topics in animal physiology and behavior. As an integrated lecture and laboratory course, students apply what they learn about the general principles of zoology to scientific investigations. Cross-listed: None. Offered: No Information Provided. Prerequisite: successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 151-BIO 152, BIO 181-BIO 182, or equivalent.
PATHOLOGY BIO 410 K BIO (3.00 credits)
Pathology - K offers students an opportunity to understanding human disease and communicate their knowledge of pathology through oral presentations of a pathological condition. Pathology - K provides students with a basic understanding of the causes, physiological mechanisms, and clinical manifestations of human disease states. The clinical signs and symptoms along with the therapeutic consideration of human diseases will be addressed. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 210 and BIO 211; completion or concurrent enrollment in an O-tag course; or consent of instructor.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY BIO 412 BIO (3.00 credits)
Pathophysiology offers students a basic understanding of the causes, physiological mechanisms, and clinical manifestations of human disease states. The clinical signs and symptoms along with the therapeutic considerations of human diseases will be addressed. Cross-listed: None. Offered: F/S Prerequisite: successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 210 and BIO 211.
SPEC. TPC: BIOLOGY TRAVEL COURSE BIO 369A 2EG BIO (4.00 credits)
Biology travel courses offer students an opportunity to learn about exciting places far beyond Edgewood College.  With both an on-campus classroom component and approximately two weeks of faculty-led travel abroad, students will get an in-depth, firsthand experience with the biology and culture of another part of the world.  Current programs are offered in the Galapagos Islands and Costa Rica.  These courses will challenge students  to explore and reflect upon their personal values, beliefs, spiritualties, and worldviews. Students will critically examine the global issue of human impacts on biological communities and explore the culture and history of the places they will visit.  Cross-listed: None. Offered: No Information Provided.
SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY BIO 469 BIO (1.00 - 3.00 credits)
This course is an advanced study of topics of special current interest in biology and related fields. Seminar/discussion or lecture format. Cross-listed: None. Offered: No Information Provided. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.
VIROLOGY BIO 414 BIO (3.00 credits)
Virology is the study of viruses.  This course offers an in-depth look at the ways in which viruses support their life cycle through the infection of host cells, how infections cause disease, vaccination, and the techniques that are used to investigate viruses.  Students will become proficient in reading scientific literature and in designing, analyzing, and interpreting experiments in virology.   Cross-listed: None. Offered: No Information Provided. Prerequisite: Successful completion (CD or higher) of BIO 312 or BIO 401, or consent of instructor.